The focus of our research has been on enhancing the safety of hospitalized patients using interventional, observational, and economic methods. The specific area of inquiry has been preventing healthcare-associated infection due to urinary catheters, the most common infection in the United States and one of the complications that will no longer be reimbursed by Medicare. Our group has evaluated antimicrobial catheters in terms of both efficacy and cost-effectiveness. Additionally, we have reported that novel urinary catheter "reminder" systems – written or computerized – decrease urinary catheter use, after arguing that indwelling catheters are a “one-point restraint.” To better understand alternatives for indwelling catheters, we conducted a randomized trial comparing condom catheters with urethral catheters. More recently, we have published T2/T3 translational work from a national study that determined what U.S. hospitals are doing to prevent nosocomial urinary tract infection and why they are using certain practices rather than others. We are currently conducting a mixed-methods study – coupled with facilitated implementation – which will evaluate whether or not a “bladder bundle” will reduce nosocomial urinary tract infection in the state of Michigan. In addition to healthcare-associated infection prevention, we have also evaluated the important and timely issue of residency duty hours, relating this area to patient safety. Finally, the area of cognitive error has been explored in numerous clinical problem-solving exercises published in the New England Journal of Medicine.